(Following is a draft version, which is subject to be updated or revised. Your comments and feedbacks are welcome!)
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A) Minimization of HEU in Civilian Use
HEU has been utilized for civilian purposes through the use of research reactors and isotope production reactors. However, since HEU is suitable for the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices, if it is removed from a regulatory control without authorization, such as by theft, it becomes possible that non-state actors as well as states can produce nuclear explosive devices. Against this concern, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) was commenced in 2004 by the
for the purposes of returning Russian- or U.S.-origin HEU located in civilian
sites in the world to its respective origins and converting research reactors
to use low enriched uranium (LEU). The Nuclear Security Summits in 2010 and
2012 upheld this effort as one of the most important actions to be taken. U.S.